Web Content Management System

A web content management is a platform used to create, manage, store and deploy content to websites. It is usually designed as a stand-alone system. It may also be used to effectively catalog massive amounts of data which are be tedious to publish by manual coding; here data refers to text, images or graphics. Usually coded with popular web-development languages like PHP and Perl, other additional languages like JavaScript or Flash may also be incorporated as part of the user interface.

Web content management systems are built to be versatile; they can mould around any idea and fit the usage criterion of millions! When it comes to actually delivering information to the end user, the web content management system will generate pages based on the search criterion or options chosen by the end-user.

Personalizing a web content management system is just as easy as managing your content. With loads of in-built configuration options, your data can be easily sorted. It can be set to be just as unique as your product or website. Here are a few reasons why web content management is so popular:

• Easy Storage and Retrieval of Data
• Assignable Administration Levels
• Support for Large Amount of Participation
• Reduced Input Redundancy
• Simple User Communication
• Custom Reporting

When a web content management system can offer you so many features in one secure solution, painstakingly long manual coding sounds futile. A few web content management systems prevalent in the web today are Drupal, Joomla, vBulletin, phpBB and many more. WordPress is the most simple and most famous Web Content Management system available today. Save time, cost and work-load, try a Web Content Management system today!

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Design an Eye Catching Website

We all know that these days every one can design a website but the question remains how to design eye catching website . I have read many books ,articles and tutorials about web design and have realized that every web designer has his own way of designing websites.

After I read all of that and made extensive research , I decided to write something about it and to share some of my experience with you. This is my first article and I must say I’m not a writer but I hope you will find it very informative. Of course I wrote about something which you might already know about but I believe there is always someone out there who needs such information and tips and benefits from them. In the article I have gathered and explained some good tips (Do’s and Don’t’s) which will give you an astonishing results if you follow them well.

Below are the tips for designing an eye catching website which you will be proud of .

1 Consistency : It is always better to keep your design from page to page consistent so that the visitor knows that he is still in the same site and didn’t jump to another site.

The page or site color scheme and navigation should be the same throughout the site.

2 Navigation : Always keep your navigation simple . Tell the visitor which page he is on . This can be done in many ways and the way which I think is the best way is to remove the link from the page which he is on .

For example, Let’s suppose that you have the following navigation text on your home page …

Home — About Us — Contact Us — Services — Order

Then suppose that the visitor clicked on the services page .

When the services page is loaded then the link which says services will not be a link instead it will be a normal text with different color. That helps the visitor know which page he is on. If you are using graphic buttons then You can provide a different version of the button and make it without a link.

3 Use Browser Safe Colors : What are browser safe colors anyway? Browser safe colors are 216 colors which remain the same when displayed on any computer or browser.

Colors which are not browser safe may dither when displayed some computers ,meaning if a computer can’t display a color 100% it will then display the nearest color to it instead. So make sure that you use browser safe colors throughout your site.

4 Minimize the use of Graphics : A site with a lot of graphics will take forever to load. Even though graphics make sites better but it is always better to minimize the use of them for many reasons including but not limited to the following :

– A lot of Graphics make your site or pages take forever to load which will make the visitor of your website close the page or hit the back button .

– Search Engine Spiders have problems with graphics because they will not be able to index any page that has a lot of graphics .

– Of course you can use small, yet fast loading graphics instead of the big ones . Also You can use them as a table or cell background but make sure that the text is readable before the background image is loaded.

Don’t forget to use the ALT tag for all of your images!

5 Flash : Flash is is much like the graphics . Even though Flash brings your site to life but avoid using a lot of it on your site because that will make it load forever .

You can use small Flash animations and also You should give the url of the Flash Plug-in for the visitors who haven’t got the Flash Player on their computer. After all You want people to be able to see your Flash animations. So don’t over use it because they say Flash is evil.

6 Frames : Frames are not good for many things including but not limited to the following :

– Search engines have problems with them .
– The links can be opened into the wrong frame.
– Distracting scroll bars are displayed when the content doesn’t fit it.
– Many other things but There are many reasons which make us sometimes use Frames on our websites which some are the following

Frames enable us to manage sites easily. Suppose you want to update the header of your website ,if you designed it with just an html then You will have to update all of the pages on the site but Frames made that easy by just updating one page and You will not have to update the rest. There are many alternatives to the frames . You can use PHP Includes to include the desired file to the desired location. You can use this code to do so.

The filename.php will be the file name which you want to include, but The page which you are going to insert the code must be saved as yourpage.php and have .php file extension. Also You can use Extended Server Side Includes which is like the PHP by using the following code. The page which you are going to insert the code must be saved as yourpage.shtml and have .shtml file extension. So avoid using Frames on any part of your site.

7 Organize Your site files well : It is good to organize your site files well and divide them into categories for easy file management.

For example suppose you have a lot of products and then you can organize them as follows

products/product1/ or products/nameofproduct/

So the url of the product will be like http://yourcompanyname.com/products/product1 or http://yourcompanyname.com/products/nameofproduct/

In that way You can organize your web files easily .

8 Use Limited Colors only : Avoid using many colors on your site . Limit your colors to four or six .

9 Links : Your links should be descriptive . And should be readable . Also Use one color for all of your major links .

These were some tips which is necessary to use for designing an eye catching website.

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After all We all want to design great sites .

How to to setup Unix/Linux SSH key authentication

Its easy to setup a Unix/Linux SSH key authentication, heres how. We normally setup ssk key authentication to automate some of the jobs. If you have more than few hundred of servers and if you need to login reguarly, then better to have SSH key setup. You don’t need to enter password all the time.

* Creating keys
* Distributing public keys
* Testing ssh accesses
* Troubleshooting

1. Creating keys

Keys are created with the command ssh-keygen:
# ssh-keygen -t -b -C “comment” -f

where:
* key-type is dsa or rsa (dsa is the most commonly used these days)
* key-len is the length of the key. For dsa 1024 bits is considered as secure enough, 2048 is considered more than secure. Keys larger than 2048 should only be used if erformance is not an issue
* name is the name of the key-files. Defaults are id_rsa for rsa and id_dsa for dsa. I personally use id_dsa-

The result are two files, id_dsa- the private key and id_dsa-.pub the public key.

2. Distributing public keys

In order to use the private/public key sheme to encrypt the session data the private key must be installed on the remote machine.

Copy the private key to the remote machine: # scp id_dsa-.pub @>remote-host>:/home//.ssh
Then connect to the remote machine and install the public key by adding it to ~/.ssh/authorized_keys2: # cat id_dsa- >> authorized_keys2
Please note:

* authorized_keys2 shall not be world readable (chmod 600 authorized_keys2)
* If you decided to use rsa keys the public key has to be placed in authorized_keys

After having installed the public key on the remote machine log off.

If you use a key naming that is different from the default id_dsa/id_rsa it is required to instruct ssh about the key name. Therefore edit ~/.ssh/ config and add following line to it: IdentityFile=~/.ssh/id_dsa-3. Testing ssh accesses

Test ssh with following command:
# ssh-v @ First thing to check: make shure you are asked for your passphrase, not your password
. In case of any trouble the debug display can be used for tracing the decisions made during the access (also see “Troubleshooting”).

4. Troubleshooting

4.1. Using debug mode on client and server

For troubleshooting ssh both client and server provide detailed tracing options:

* The ssh option -v traces details during the session establishment (e.g. selection of identity file)
* You can start the sshd server on an alternate port using the command sshd -p -d -D. In this mode the server displays important information at session begin

4.1. Common errors

* ~/.ssh and/or the private data as well as config file are world readable
* If using a non-standard identity filename is is not defined in ~/.shh/config (you can also try forcing the identity file using the -i ssh option.

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How to install Cpanel

How to install Cpanel

Here are short and simple about installing Cpanel on your server,

Make sure you are login to your server as root user.

1. Log into your server as root via the console or SSH.
2. Ensure your resolvers are working by trying to resolve cPanel Inc.
nslookup cpanel.net
3. Change directory into your /home.
cd /home
4. Download cpanels installer from layer1.cpanel.net/latest.
wget layer1.cpanel.net/latest
5. Now run the installer using sh or bash.
sh latest

You are done! :)

cPanel useful scripts

Important Scripts Function of cPanel at /scripts:

To create new email account use

# ./addpop
And follow the steps

# ./checkbadconf
Checks /usr/local/apache/conf/httpd.conf for bad users.

# ./fixcommonproblems
– Attempt to fix the most common problems.

# ./fixeverything
– Fix common problems and quotas.

# ./fixmysql
– Fixes problems with mySQL.

Nameserver, DNS related scripts to troubleshoot:

# ./fixnamed – Updates bind to handle many DNS zones (more than 512).
# ./fixrndc

securetmp – Adds securetmp to system startup.

Domains:

listsubdomains – List subdomains.
park – Parks a domain.
newdomains*
newdomains-sendmail*
rebuildparkeddomains*
updateuserdomains*

FrontPage:

checkfpkey – Checks for the FrontPage suid key
setupfp5 – Install FrontPage 5 (2002) installer on an account.
updatefrontpage – Updates FrontPage
fixfrontpageperm – Fix the frontpage permission issues

GD:

checkgd – Checks to see if GD is built.
cleangd – Cleans up old GD installs and reinstalls GD
installgd – Builds GD.

Zend:

installzendopt – Install zend optimzer.

ImageMagick:

checkimagemagick
cleanimagemagick
fetchimagemagick
installimagemagick

Perl:

fixperl – Symlink /usr/local/bin/perl /usr/bin/perl.
fixperlscript – Makes sure a perlscript includes all corresponding modules.
fixsuexeccgiscripts – Fix CGI scripts that are broken after suexec

Mail:

fixpop – Fix a POP account and reset password.
fixspamassassinfailedupdate – Reinstalls a failed spamassassin update.
fixvaliases
listcheck – Checks mailing lists for issues.
mailperm – Fix almost any mail permission problem.
mailscannerupdate – Updates MailScanner
mailtroubleshoot – Guided mail fix.
patcheximconf – Fixes exim.conf
reseteximtodefaults – Resets exim’s default settings.
resetimappasswds – Resets all imap passwords.

Quote:

fixquotas – Fix quotas.

ftpquaotacheck – Runs quota checking for all ftp users.

Stats:

fixwebalizer – Repair a Webalizer that has stopped updating.

Logs:

fixsubdomainlogs
runstatsonce – Runs statistics (should be used from the crontab).
runweblogs – Run analog/webalizer/etc. for a user.

SSL:

gencrt – Generate a .crt and .csr file.

Database:

installpostgres – Installs PostrgeSQL.
mysqladduserdb – Create a MySQL databse and user.
mysqlconnectioncheck – Attempts to connect to MySQL, restarts SQL if necessary.
mysqldeluserdb – Delete a MySQL databse and user.
mysqlpasswd – Change MySQL password.
mysqlrpmpingtest – Checks your connection speed for downloading

Service restart:

restartsrv – Restart a service.
restartsrv_apache – Restart apache.
restartsrv_bind – Restart bind.
restartsrv_clamd – Restart clamd.
restartsrv_courier – Restart courier imap.
restartsrv_cppop – Restart cppop.
restartsrv_entropychat – Restart entropy chat.
restartsrv_exim – Restart exim.
restartsrv_eximstats – Restart exim statistics.
restartsrv_ftpserver – Restart your ftp server.
restartsrv_ftpserver~ – (INTERNAL)
restartsrv_httpd – Restart httpd.
restartsrv_imap – Restart impad.
restartsrv_inetd – Restart inetd.
restartsrv_interchange – Restart Interchange Shopping Cart.
restartsrv_melange – Restart melange chat.
restartsrv_mysql – Restart mysqld.
restartsrv_named – Restart named.
restartsrv_postgres – Restart postgresql.
restartsrv_postgresql – Restart postgresql.
restartsrv_proftpd – Restart proftpd.
restartsrv_pureftpd – Restart pure-ftpd.
restartsrv_spamd – Restart spamd.
restartsrv_sshd – Restart sshd.
restartsrv_syslogd – Restart syslogd.
restartsrv_tomcat – Restart tomcat.
restartsrv_xinetd – Restart xinetd.

To upgrade the cPanel(WHM) kindly use the script:

# ./upcp –force

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Installing APF (Advanced Policy Firewall)

APF is a policy based IP tables firewall system designed for ease of use and configuration. It employs a subset of features to satisfy the veteranLinux user and the novice alike. Packaged in .tar.gz and RPM formats, APF is ideal for deployment in any linux server environment.

How to Install the APF Firewall

1. Type cd /usr/local/src

2. wget http://www.rfxnetworks.com/downloads/apf-current.tar.gz

3. tar -xvzf apf-current.tar.gz

4. cd apf-x.x/ (the x.x stands for the apf version)

5. ./install.sh
The message below will appear once APF is installed.

.: APF installed
Install path: /etc/apf
Config path: /etc/apf/conf.apf
Executable path: /usr/local/sbin/apf

6. pico /etc/apf/conf.apf

Note: The settings below are recommend for cPanel servers.

Common ingress (inbound) ports
IG_TCP_CPORTS=”21,22,25,53,80,110,143,443,2082,2083, 2086,2087, 2095, 2096,30000_35000″

Common ingress (inbound) UDP ports
IG_UDP_CPORTS=”53″

Common egress (outbound) TCP ports
EG_TCP_CPORTS=”21,25,80,443,43″

Common egress (outbound) UDP ports
EG_UDP_CPORTS=”20,21,53″

7. Simply press Crtl + X then Y to save & quit.

8. Starting the firewall
/usr/local/sbin/apf -s

9. If everything is fine after the firewall is being started, key in
pico /etc/apf/conf.apf

Change DEVM=”1″ to DEVM=”0″

10. Again, press Ctrl+X then Y

11. To restart the firewall, type /usr/local/sbin/apf -r

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